some chair terms illustrated w period examples

some pictures, spurred on by Chris Schwarz’ last 2 posts on his blog, and my earlier one from today.

A stool. common as can be, but early ones (16th/17th centuries) are less common than hen’s teeth. This one’s from the Mary Rose (1545)

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

Joined stool. simple, you’ve seen this sort of thing here hundreds of times.

MET stool small file

Its cousin – the joined form. same thing, just stretched out.

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

 

While we’re at it, let’s get the wainscot chair out of the way.

wainscot chair Pil Hall

 

a variant – the “close” chair, “settle chair” of Randle Holme, although his illustration might be a different version.

metcalfe chair

 

This is what Holme illustrated, I can’t imagine a more difficult way to build a chair.

dug out chair 001

Turned chairs. Ugh. these get weird. First, the “turned chair”  “great (meaning large) chair” “rush chair” – lots of names could mean this item.

BARTLETT CHAIR (2)

This is the one Holme said made by turners or wheelwrights, “wrought with Knops, and rings ouer the feete, these and the chaires, are generally made with three feete.’ = I would say, except when the have four feet.

welsh chair overall 2 welsh chair 12

 

Like this one: the real kicker here is that these chairs have beveled panels for seats, captured in grooves in the seat rails. Thus, sometimes called: a “wooden chair” = chairs often being categorized by their seating materials.

DUTCH turned chair

 

 

Now we have a “wrought” chair, “turkey-work chair” – and so forth. I mentioned in a comment on Chris’ blog the other day, forget the construction here, (joiner’s work, w turned, and in this case, twist-carved bits) it’s the upholstery that makes the splash. These were top-flight items in the 17th century.

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

Same gig, only leather. (this photo is I think from Marhamchurch Antiques)

_ALG5130

 

Randle Holme’s turner’s chopping block looks a lot like Chris’ image today from Van Ostade, of a “country stool” – I’d have a chopping block in my kitchen if I could…but we’re out of space.

turners chopping block

 

 

That was fun, I never get to use much of that research these days.

Back to spoon stuff tomorrow…there’s a mess of them available here = https://pfollansbee.wordpress.com/spoons-a-bowl-or-two-jan-2015/

 

just pictures

a bunch of things underway, as usual. What’s different is now I have to get them done & out of here in the next 2 months. They’re going ahead w rehabbing my shop, so I have to move stuff out…well, it’s some motivation to finish up stuff & organize.

here’s pictures, in no particular order. 

One of the projects is the chest of drawers I started last winter as part of the presentation I did at Winterthur. I picked it up again after about 6 months, and brought it to Historic New England last week. I really am enjoying this work; pretty new to me. I have only made a few examples of joined work with turnings & moldings for the decoration; and just one in the last 10 years. Matt’s planes & techniques are real winners. I’m slower than death, but give me 20 years of practice & I can keep pace with the carvings.

More to come on all these topics.

LINKS:

https://pfollansbee.wordpress.com/2013/03/22/i-have-until-december-but-might-need-that-much-time/

https://pfollansbee.wordpress.com/2013/03/03/getting-ready-for-winterthur-dalbergia-turnings-dovetailed-drawers/

Matt Bickford’s book & planes http://www.msbickford.com/

Next installment on the joint stool class

I’ve forgotten now just exactly how it all went; but making the rail stock, then cutting tenons was among the first order of business once we had the riven pieces in the shool/bench room. Here’s an example of just how dead flat this wood was; these tenons in the first photo have not yet been pared – they were this flat and even from splitting the cheeks. When the oak works like that, the joinery is a snap.

great rough tenons

Here’s Jerome sawing shoulders, prior to splitting the cheeks. the students learned about working with stock having an irregular cross-section. Sometimes it does not lie flat on the wooden bench hook for sawing. This can make things confusing when you are trying to saw to the line – sometimes you’re not sawing parallel to the bench top, because of the tapered cross-section that stems from riving.

tenons

Then splitting with a chisel. Here’s Tony giving it a smack.

tenon splitting

Bill caught looking at the camera – he’s supposed to know better.

caught bill looking

A few rails with scratch stock moldings cut on their lower corners.

scratch moldings

Then came making the stiles, and mortising. Well, layout before that. The old “two-consecutive thoughts” situation…

The guys really bore down & chopped & chopped. 16 mortises is a lot if you’re not used to working this way. Here’s John & Kelly having at it.

more mortising

mortising

Then while packing to go to Lie-Nielsen, Roy took some time out to show us the passer drill that he & Peter Ross collaborated on. It';s based on a British version, used to cut out the cavities for inlaid brass or other metals in the stocks of squares and similar tools.

passer drill detail

passer drill

template

ready for brass inlay

old & new

Here’s a link to the whole story pretty much. I think he did it on the show one time, or in Popular Woodworking. I found this one on the web…

the recent joined stool class

Just back from teaching the joint stool class at Roy Underhill’s Woodwright’s School. This class went better than any joined stool class I have done. My thanks to all the students who came from near & far (Dave from New Zealand took the mileage prize -if there was one. Other than he had to eat all the local food they put in front of him. “What, no possum?”) Very nice people, and all worked very hard in tough weather…

When I travel I don’t usually check email, blogs, etc. It’s nice to be disconnected, but also I have lots to focus on when teaching. We had 9 students making joined stools at Roy’s last week. That’s lots of chances for stuff to go wrong. So night-times I was trying to figure out the next move. And recover from the heat & humidity. So now I’ll run down some of what we did. Here’s a look at the first day’s work. First off, we had a great batch of oak logs. Three sections that were 24″ long, and almost that wide. AND they split flat in the radial plane. That meant no twist, thus easy planing. But these guys didn’t know that yet. 

first splits
splitting open the oak sections

It looks like this one got opened into thirds, then broken down into the eighths I had marked out. I only saw this now while sorting photos. And I took the picture! The humidity was so high that my camera lens fogged up at one point. 

 

 

 

 

 

split how
the peace oak

Here’s Jamie using a very large froe to bust out some stiles from the 1/8ths. We wanted 40 stiles and got ’em. 

froe

Then it was into town for lunch, then some bench work begun – starting to plane the rail stock. Very green oak, with an extremely high tannic acid content. We learned about cleaning tools quickly. 

planing

 

http://www.woodwrightschool.com/

http://www.lostartpress.com/Make_a_Joint_Stool_from_a_Tree_p/bk-majsfat.htm

 

a couple of small things

Packing to go to Roy’s this week. Joint stool class, followed by TV shooting…so I have been very busy, but not much to write or show…

 

here is a neat little thing a friend brought in the other day for me to look at. I had nothing concrete to say about it, other than it’s really nice. Said to have been brought from England or Wales, guessing by the family story late 19th/early 20th century. Looks like it’s seen a lot of use, for some reason or other. Hung on the wall…

front viuew

slider

painted panel

mini cupboard

 

Here is my small joined chest. It was really hard to not carve this. It’s semi-assembled, but I knocked it apart today to pack in the car. We’ll build it on Roy’s show. If all goes well…

mini chest
joined chest, H: 20″ W: 30″ D: 15″

 

chest floor
inside, showing till & floor

Meanwhile, at the house – “PLAY BALL!”

PLAY BALL
PLAY BALL

Just read Phil House’s book Perfect Once Removed. A reminiscence about 10-yr old Phil, finding out his cousin was Don Larsen, who later that year (1956) pitched a perfect game in the World Series.

 

 

Make a Joint Stool at Roy Underhill’s July 15-19

Well, now it’s April, which means it’s practically May. Might as well be June, which makes me wonder what you’re doing this summer.

What you could do is come to Pittsboro, North Carolina to make a joint stool at Roy Underhill’s Woodwright’s School. http://www.woodwrightschool.com/elizabethian-joint-stool-w-pet/

Out at the mill, we’ll split out an oak, and get to use a lot of wedges, hatchets and other big tools.

splitting oak w wedges
splitting oak w wedges
hewing at the mill
hewing at the mill

Maybe the owls will come out to watch.

Roy's barred owl
Roy’s barred owl

Next, we’ll take the pieces into the school’s bench-room in town and get to planing.

If we make enough shavings, the Bag Man appears.

lots of planing to do
lots of planing to do

the Bag Man
the Bag Man

Mortise & tenon joinery, drawboring, chamfering (turning for those full-tilt crazies) – it’ll be like the book come to life. I don’t remember what’s in the book, so I’ll be making it up as I go along.

chamfered frame
chamfered frame
pole lathe practice
pole lathe practice

There’ll be tools galore, I’ll bring mine, Roy’s school has tons, then there’s Ed’s store upstairs!

overall ed's

some of ed's planes

If you wanted to know about green woodworking, then a week with me & Roy ought to do it. It reminds me of Twain’s quote about Kipling: “Between us, we cover all knowledge; he knows all that can be known, and I know the rest.”

 

Seriously, it’s a great week there. if you are interested in learning the craft of oak joinery with old-style tools, here’s your chance. My box-carving class at Drew Langsner’s is full, with a waiting list – so this is the only other week-long class I have this summer. Unless you’re in Germany in June! http://www.mehr-als-werkzeug.de/course/KU1631301/Carved-Box.htm

So get going. Get over to Roy’s website: http://www.woodwrightschool.com/elizabethian-joint-stool-w-pet/

get goin'
get goin’

half a pair of joint stools

half a pair
half a pair

I have two joint stools to finish to go along with a table and joined form I am making. For the seven-foot long table top I opted for quartersawn white oak. So I made the tops of the stools and form from the same material. Yesterday I planed the board for the stool tops. I kept it at double-length to make handling it easier while I planed it flat and dressed the thickness. I decided to keep it that way while I ran the molding too.

 I trimmed it to width, then dressed both faces and trued up the edges. I then crosscut both ends and marked out the middle where I eventually would crosscut it in two.

 I marked out the 7/8” wide thumbnail molding spacing with a marking gauge along both long edges. Then I followed the steps I outlined in the joint stool book for making the molding; a rabbet plane (in this case, a filester) to begin to define the depth, then bevelling off the shape with smooth plane/jointer. I fiddled a little with a hollow plane like what Matt Bickford does; I had the rabbet, then I chamfered that, then ran the hollow a bit. It was just a bit shy of the right size, and was not perfectly fettled. So it served to further rough out the shape, but I still did the final definition with the smooth plane.

filester plane
filester filetster plane
hollow plane
hollow plane

 

shaping molding
shaping molding

I ran this molding along both edges, then did the two outside ends. Here, I marked the width with a knife and square, rather than a gauge. Then cut it apart and finished each seat with one more molding. Usually I do the end-grain moldings first, but in this case it was worth reversing that order.

quartersawn stock
quartersawn stock

The wood is amazing quality; clear, wide and perfectly quartersawn. Air dried. The next best thing to riven. I then finished shaping the seats, and bored one & fit it on the stool. Just like in the book…. http://www.lostartpress.com/Make_a_Joint_Stool_from_a_Tree_p/bk-majsfat.htm

boring & pegging
boring & pegging

 Now, fresh on the success of “Riven Cedrela” I have the phrase “half-a-pair of joint stools” ringing in my head like “four-and-twenty blackbirds…” so stay tuned. It could be my first nursery rhyme.