There’s a bunch of stuff going on around here. I shot photos of the carved box with drawer project for a couple of days; then had to set that down for the back half of this week, so I could build one of these “plain” chairs. I built this one here at home, so there’s no photos of this work. Maple legs, ash rails, oak slats. If I backed up any further to take this photo, I’d be tumbling into a pile of who-knows-what…

 

rush chair sans rush

Time to trim the legs’ tops; then add a rush seat. I was trying to think how many tools it was – splitting tools; hatchet, drawknife, spokeshave, brace & bit, crosscut saw, mortise chisel – I used an awl and knife also. Maybe that’s it. If pressed, you could drop a couple of those tools…but I guess I should add the shaving horse, and a low bench for boring & assembly. 

This one is based mostly on Dutch paintings of the 17th-century; this style of chair was the first project I ever made when I was at Plimoth Plantation. Indeed, this one’s for them, too. Here’s one that has been in use there for many years:

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

 

I came to calling them plain chairs because of a reference in the Turners Company of London, about pricing for chairs, “plain matted” and “turned matted” – so if the difference is the turning, then here’s what an un-turned chair might look like. There’s a few surviving oldies around, but they are hard to date; and most did not survive. I have seen a few die out at Plimoth after 15-25 years. You can patch ‘em back together some, but sooner or later, it’s just easiest to chuck ‘em and make a new one. 

Typically I make them with low seats, best for working in, rather than sitting at a table. Like this photo Gavin Ashworth took when Trent, Alexander & I co-authored an article about such chairs in American Furniture. I think it was 2008. 

110 West 80 St-4R, NY, NY 10024 212 874 3879

 

Other stuff in the works – finishing up a bunch of baskets I started this summer, (there;’s some in the background of the top photo) finishing some hewn bowls also. Spoons as usual; and I just started cutting out stock for a chair different from anything I’ve done in nearly 30 years.  Next week I’m going to finish assembling the carved box with drawer -just received some quartersawn sycamore (plane tree for you overseas readers) for the lid. Wow. 

This weekend is time to photograph stuff for sale; mine & Maureen’s. She has added some new felted autumn stuff,  if you’re inclined, have a look. More soon both here & there. 

https://www.etsy.com/shop/MaureensFiberArts

 

 

We could all use a hit of positive news – and I got some from Scott Landis in my inbox this morning. Scott you might remember as the author of the Taunton Press book on Workbenches (yes, there were workbenches before C. Schwarz!) – I met Scott when he, Alexander & I were all students in a class Curtis Buchanan taught on making a bow-back Windsor chair in 1987 at Country Workshops.

Nowadays Scott is the president of Green Wood, an organization that trains (mostly, but not only) young people in places like Honduras and Peru to make sustainable wooden products from rain forests. Curtis Buchanan, Brian Boggs and other craftsmen have made trips down there to begin training folks in these woodcrafts, starting back in 1993.

GW.yearend2012.13daa8a48c65d GW.yearend2012.21fb3776e0eda

 

 

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“The photo … shows Curtis at work in El Carbón in the mid-1990s. And the middle photo shows some of the new furniture that is being made today by young artisans whom Curtis and Brian have never met. In fact, GreenWood has not visited this community for at least five years, and we have not conducted a training workshop there in nearly twice that long. These are the fruits of seeds we planted two decades ago in what could best be described as hardpan clay. El Carbón is beset by every manner of hardship—from crushing poverty and natural disaster (Hurricane Mitch) to massive hydroelectric development and the pervasive violence that plagues the whole country. This vulnerable Pech village illustrates the simple but enduring truth that, even under the most challenging conditions, good ideas will eventually take root. If that’s not sustainable development, what is?”

 

Rather than me trying to write about it, just follow the link and see for yourselves. If you are signed up for the newsletters from Green Wood, then you’re onto it. If not, now’s the time to see what these folks are up to. There’s a button where you can donate $$ via paypal. It came at the right time for me. Some of Alexander’s extra tools might make it down there, who knows…

http://www.greenwoodglobal.org/dev/

 

 

 

 

a quick post between tool sales…

I often get asked about what woods besides oak will work for the joinery methods I use. I have little experience with non-oak joinery woods. But recently I was sifting through some digital files, and found these shots of our bedstead. I built it about 12 years ago. Our house is too small to rear back & shoot the whole bedstead – so you get some detail shots only.

 

I contrived the construction. Period bedsteads are often assembled with iron bolts through the stiles into captured nuts buried in the long rails. I chose to sidestep those issues and use a through tenon with a wedge. But the format of the footboard here is just a chest front really, with extended stiles above. The stiles and long rails are ash, the panels and muntins are red oak. I worked the ash just as I did the oak; riven radially, hewn & planed. Drawbored mortise & tenons. Over time the color discrepancy gets muted. The footboard is four panels wide, the center muntin is wider than the other two muntins.

  bedstead foot board

The headboard was designed around the two horizontal panels that I had. These are white oak, the stiles and brackets are red oak and the long rails are ash again. Behind the bedding is a single white pine panel reaching down to a lower rail. That’s probably ash too, though I forget. I designed this headboard based on our room, and I didn’t want it to block the row of windows above that look out at the river. So I added a row of turned spindles trapped between two rails.

 

bedstead headboard

The long rails are 2 x 8s, again in oak.  I screwed two long ledger strips of oak to the inside of these rails, and have loose boards sitting across these ledger strips to support the bedding.

Ash is an all-time favorite wood of mine. Unfortunately it’s under attack these days. Lots of it is being cut, let’s hope it gets used for something other than firewood & chips. See the website here for the latest on the Emerald Ash Borer.  http://www.emeraldashborer.info/

 

 

I got another note from Drew Langsner this morning; here it is.

riving shingles in Japan

Hi Peter,
Here’s more on riving. This photo is of a gentleman who demonstrates riving shingles at Hida Folk Museum, near Takayama City in the Japan Alps. You can easily see that he’s been doing this for hundreds of years. He is riving chestnut.
  It’s not shown in this photo but he will often rive a billet into thirds. Here’s the technique. He starts a split 1/3 of the way across the width. Shortly after the froe enters the billet he removes the froe. He then drives it half way in the remaining two-thirds of the billet. Immediately the froe is removed, replaced into the first opening, and driven down some. Then removed and replaced back into the second split. This continues until one of the side boards pops off. Then he finishes riving the other piece into halves. Very neat trick. I think the chestnut makes this somewhat easier than other woods because it is more bendy and therefore doesn’t pop apart as fast as a wood like red oak.
  Also note his riving brake. I’ve been riving wood for shingles, chairs, fencing for 40 years now but had never seen anything like this. The brake not only holds the wood in place. It also puts pressure (tension) on the outer side of the curve and this causes the fibers along the curve to come apart as the split opens up. 
  
One other trick. The master warms the wood over a small fire before riving. In winter this defrosts it. But I think that all year around it makes the wood a bit more bendy.
  
The froe is almost identical to the ones we use. 
    
(Photo by Drew Langsner from the 2010 Country Workshops Japan Craft Tour)
Thanks, Drew. We’ll see more about the CW froe soon.

According to the statistics that WordPress compiles for this blog, the shaving horse entry I did when I first started is still the most-viewed posting I have ever done (2,627 views). Must be a lot of people who want to know about shaving horses.

 Having some hickory handles to make, I decided it was finally time to fix the shaving horse. It wasn’t broken, just a bit run-down. Once it was my primary work surface; but now I only use it sparingly. But when I have drawknife work, it’s the way to go.

 I have seen lots of discussion about the English style horse that I learned from Jennie Alexander versus the German style horse that I know from Drew Langsner’s examples. Both work fine. Some say the clamping power of the English example is limited – I think this is silly, really. Some English versions I have seen stink, principally because they have virtually no means to adjust the work surface, and that is key. Many years ago, Alexander improved the shaving horse first presented in the book Make a Chair from a Tree; and I then copied that new version. Plans and details can be found on www.greenwoodworking.com     http://www.greenwoodworking.com/ShavingHorsePlans

 I needed new front legs for mine this week, the old ones sagged a bit, and the treadle scraped on the floor. So I took to setting the front feet on a block of wood; but it really called for a re-working. So I finally did it. While I was at it, I fixed a few other things at the same time.

 One repair was the wedge that I use to attach the pivot block. It had busted, so I made a new wedge. I then tweaked that block too, based on a suggestion Alexander made when I first showed this shaving horse on the very first post on this blog back in 2008.

Here’s the the notched work surface, the pivot block it fits on, and its wedge.

fittings for shaving horse

 The real benefit to this type of shaving horse is the adjustable height to the work surface. The pivot block fits through a mortise in the bench; the work surface slips over the squared head of that block, and is hinged with a wooden pin.

The work surface is adjusted by slipping the wooden block/shim under the work surface, and it moves up, slide the block back towards you & it drops down to accommodate thicker stock. So the trick is to keep the work surface at a height so that you need to only shove your foot a little bit to apply the pressure to hold things tight. If you have to extend your leg further, the height needs adjusting. Notice in these photos that my leg is in about the same position in both, but the thickness of the stock is quite different. Simple. Here’s a few more pictures.

pivot hinge work surface

shaving thin stock

shaving thick stock

It’s really important to learn to slice with the drawknife as well. The cuts are not just pulled straight towards you; I start with the knife all the way to one side, and as I bring it to me, I slide it sideways too. This way, I get a slicing action, and also use the entire length of the blade. Here’s the beginning and ending of one slice.

beginning of cut

 

end of cut

Hopefully this helps some. If the workpiece slips a lot, just wet the work surface of the shaving horse. Or fix a strip of inner tube rubber to one face of the crossbar at the top. I have never done the latter, and rarely have done the former. But they work.

twisted oak bolts

Here’s the oak bolts I mentioned the other day. You can see that although these are wide, clear stock they score pretty low on “flat” – the split faces are quite twisted. Lots of torn fibers too, not a very clean split. What this translates to is a lot more work and a good bit of waste. But until something better comes along, these are still worth working. Many of these sections will get me panels around 9″ to 11″ wide. That wide stuff has not been easy to find lately. I think these are around 18″-20″ long. Red oak.

twist in short oak bolts

By contrast, here is a nine-foot section of hickory that Tom & I split the other day. Most of this is not mine, but I managed to weasel some of it. It’s mostly destined for tool handles, (including scythe handles for the museum) – I’ll make some stock for my sledge hammer handles, a new froe handle and club, and some other stock like that. Off-cuts will become wooden wedges for splitting. It is great stock. A little weathered at one end, but there’s plenty there to use.

hickory

hickory detail

What great wood, but I can’t stand to plane it into flat stock…for me it’s back to the beginning of my woodworking career with this stuff;  froe, drawknife and shaving horse. Reminds me of when I first knew and worked with Jennie Alexander, making those ladderback chairs.

My first post on this blog years ago was about a shaving horse Alexander designed. My next one will be about it again, with some details about its construction and use. Some things are worth repeating.  here’s the old one: http://pfollansbee.wordpress.com/2008/07/01/shaving-horses/

J Jones wrote and asked a leading question the other day. The answer could expand to thesis-length. I will condense it here…

first, the question:

“I wonder if you could show the general timeline of assembly in a project like the joined stool that Brian and Jennie discussed above. The techniques and orientation of the wood planes make sense to me, but I am having a hard time visualizing when these parts should be assembled. How dry should the joints be to prevent splitting?

There are times when you will work on a part, put it aside, then finish it later. I have read Jennie’s writing about fitting chair tenons into their mortises, and how they must be bone dry, yet the mortise can be “air dry.” Are there any such rules or timelines that you follow?”

Now, the answer, subject to additions and clarifications of course…

In joinery, things are different from the chairmaking scenario outlined in Alexander’s book and DVD…

The gist of it (we’ll have plenty of detail on this in the stool book one day) is that this project can be done from the tree quite quickly, but it doesn’t have to be…

two wedges to start the split

Ideally, we split the stock when the log is fresh, i.e. full of moisture. With oak, this can be a long time after felling, as long as it has not been split open. The riving down to rough size and planing take place in this same condition, for ease. It just works so much easier when wet. However, you can’t get a fine, smooth finish with planes, turning tools, carving tools, etc until the surface has begun to dry. So after planing, I stack the boards in the shop (in winter, away from heat source) Shavings piled on them don’t hurt, and sometimes help prevent checking or splitting at the ends. Mostly a problem in thicker stock.

planing green oak

freshly planed oak w shavings

Within a couple of weeks in most situations, the outer parts begin to dry while underneath the oak is still wet inside. This depends greatly on the weather (in my shop, in August, it takes longer to reach this state we have taken to calling “workable moisture content” than it does in mid-winter with the heat on). So at this stage, any finish surface work can take place…the wood still works easier than any store-bought drier stuff and responds nicely to a good sharp edge.

scratch stock & crease molding

The joinery itself mainly requires that the tenon be dry-ish at assembly. If the tenon is too wet at assembly, the pins will not pull the tenon home, they will instead just compress the fibers in the tenon and the joint will not be as strong as it should be. Likewise, the pins need to be dry, any moisture in them & they can shrink upon further drying, leaving the joint loose…

piercer bit for boring tenon

The stool is the simplest joinery project of all, just about. Things like joined chests, large press cupboards – these have more complications, but their construction, the body of them, is the same. Floors, doors = these are things that get complicated. Some period joiners often had many projects undeway at once, for a lot of reasons; but one benefit is that you can leapfrog them along…sit this one aside, bring the next one along, etc. I do this constantly.

We have seen some pictures in the blog of period evidence for our ideas on this aspect of green woodworking. I will in a future post pull some of that stuff together. we didn’t pull this out of our hats, there’s a basis for it.

Those are the main points – remember the blog is the teaser, the book will have the whole shebang….

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